Join our session on caste-based discrimination at the OECD Forum

On 21 February, we are organising a side session at the OECD Forum on Due Dilligence in the Garment and Foodware Sector:

Caste-based Discrimination: a salient risk in the garment and leather supply chains in South Asia

21 February 2022 | 12 – 13.15 CET

Studies of the garment and footwear sectors in key caste-affected countries such as India and Pakistan, have shown that a majority of those engaged in forced and bonded or child labour and/or hazardous working conditions in these sectors are Dalits (oppressed castes). During this session, results will be shared of recent research and on how caste-based discrimination displays itself on the work floor in South Asia. Participants will be equipped with tools to take action to protect and remedy human rights violations stemming from caste-based discrimination in their operations and supply chains.

The session will cover:

  • WHAT is caste-based discrimination and WHY is it relevant to international business?
  • HOW do the garment and leather workers in South Asia experience caste-based discrimination?
  • HOW can international business adress caste-based discrimination in their supply chains?

The session will have the format of a round table with presentations and active involvement of participants.


  • R. Karupussamy – Rights Education and Development Centre (READ – India
  • Farhat Parveen – NOW Communities – Pakistan
  • Peter Mcallister – Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI)
  • Meena Varma – International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN)
  • Representative of European garment or leather brand sourcing from  South Asia (tbc)
  • Sandra Claassen – Arisa (Facilitator)

The session is organised by Arisa, Together for Decent Leather, ETI, READ, and IDSN. Join the conversation on Twitter: @idsnupdates // @arisafoundation // @ethicaltrade // @READSathy

The impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on leather workers in Bangladesh, Pakistan and India

The coronavirus pandemic has had a huge impact on the garment and footwear industry, particularly on workers. The Corona chronicles bring to light the dramatic consequences of the crisis on leather workers in Bangladesh, Pakistan and India by portraying six of them. They speak about their experiences during the first lockdowns in 2020 and how the pandemic has affected them in terms of employment, livelihoods, rights, and how they fear for the future.

Millions of people worldwide work to produce leather garments, leather footwear and leather accessories. This global production network includes various phases, from animal husbandry to slaughter; from the tanning of raw hides to the finishing of leather; from the cutting of leather components to the production of a wide variety of leather end-goods, such as jackets, trousers, shoes, gloves, bags, trunks, and accessories.

With the coronavirus outbreak, production came to an abrupt halt. The international transport system, including container shipping, was completely upset. Supply chains were disrupted due to a lack of inputs and later on by the cancellation of orders by brands and retailers.

The six stories in this paper – composed by SOMO – were selected from a substantial number of interviews conducted by BLF in June 2020 in Bangladesh, by Cividep in July 2020 in India, and by NOW Communities in September 2020 in Pakistan. Both Cividep and BLF have published reports and analyses about the impacts of coronavirus on garment and leather workers in India and Bangladesh.

Added to these worker testimonies, the paper presents a set of recommendations to governments and businesses, to ensure better protection of workers’ rights.

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Trends in production and trade: Leather products from Bangladesh

Bangladesh produces leather and leather goods such as shoes, belts, bags, suitcases, wallets and to a minor extent leather apparel. The leather and leather goods industry is the country’s the second largest export-earning industry. In particular, Bangladesh has emerged as an important producer of leather footwear for the international market. This overview of trends in the production of leather and leather goods in Bangladesh collates information on the main products produced in Bangladesh, and on important export markets for its leather and leather goods. The report further maps key Bangladesh-based leather manufacturers and foreign buying companies.

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The story of Saeeda – Pakistan

Saeeda is a 28-year-old former glove factory worker. She lives in Orangi Town, a large slum in the north-western part of Karachi, with her husband, two children, her parents-in-law and three sisters-in-law. Before the coronavirus pandemic, Saeeda earned a small income from working at the factory, checking and packing finished gloves. Saeeda and her family found themselves in a desperate situation when she lost her job due to the crisis. They received very little support, had to borrow money and were left with considerable debts.

Saeeda’s factory

When the pandemic hit, Saeeda’s factory did not close at first, despite the officially proclaimed lockdown in Pakistan. The owner of the glove factory tried to keep production going. Only when the Punjabi state government announced that factory owners would be strictly persecuted for not respecting lockdown rules did the factory shut down. Saeeda and her co-workers were instructed to go home and told that they would be called back to work when the factory opened again. Despite the management’s promises, Saeeda never heard from her employer again.

No contract, no rights

As is often the case in the garment industry, Saeeda did not have an employment contract. When she started working at the glove factory, she was simply given a card to gain entrance to the factory’s compound and a piece of paper indicating her hours of work and payment. No signed contract. No payslips. No formal documentation that she could use to claim her rights and retain her job.

No back pay

When garment factories closed in March 2020, many workers had not yet received their pay for that month. Saeedea was lucky to the extent that she at least got paid for the work she did up until the moment her factory shut down. However, Saeeda and her co-workers were not paid anything in the period that the factory was closed, nor did her employer consider the lockdown as paid leave. Saeeda has given up hope that she will ever receive her due back pay.

Women workers suffered most

After two months of lockdown, the glove factory reopened. Saeeda’s employer did not inform her directly, she only found out by chance. Former colleagues mentioned that the glove factory was short on orders, production had slowed down and less workers were needed. Saeeda was not the only one to abruptly lose her job, many of her co-workers were also dismissed. Saeeda noticed that women in their thirties and forties and elderly male workers were overrepresented among those dismissed. For Saeeda this came as no surprise; she describes how women workers are facing discrimination on the work floor. Compared to their male co-workers, women receive less pay and have less opportunities for training and promotion. Women workers also experience degrading treatment and sexual harassment.

No support

The Pakistan government promised to financially support deprived workers, but although they tried to access the promised funds, Saeeda and her family did not receive any money. Political parties, as part of their campaigning, distributed ration kits with non-perishable, dry foodstuffs. Saeeda and her family did receive this aid, but the package did not last long and was not enough by far to feed the whole household for the period of deprivation.

No future?

The pandemic left Saeeda and her family in a very bad situation. When Saeeda’s husband also lost his job as a driver, the extended family had to make do with a decimated income. With the low wage she had been earning, around 14,000 INR (74 EUR) per month, Saeeda did not have any financial savings. Food became scarce in the household, particularly affecting the children’s health and strength. Saeeda was forced to borrow money from family and friends. What she needs most is to get her job back.

Corona in Pakistan

The coronavirus pandemic has had a devastating effect on the Pakistan textile and footwear sector. In 2020, the imports of raw materials, including processed hides and chemicals needed for tanning, were interrupted affecting production. Exports subsequently fell. Spain, France and Italy are important export destinations for Pakistan’s leather-based garment industry. When the pandemic hit Europe at the beginning of 2020, borders closed, international transport came to a standstill and retail shops shut. Orders from international brands were suspended. At the end of March 2020, Pakistan was put under a first nation-wide lockdown, causing a wave of factory closures, initially until the end of May and then again later in the year.

In April 2021, coronavirus infection rates surged for a third time in Pakistan. To curb the spread, lockdowns were again enforced, with some regional and sectoral modifications. In Sindh province, for example, offices and businesses had to close. In other regions factories were kept open. In early May 2021, the Employers’ Association of Pakistan (EFP) announced that they expected a loss of 15-20% of jobs in the industrial sector. This translates into millions of workers losing their income. EPF’s former president added that around 99% of textile processing industries in the industrial area of Karachi halved their production time from 24 hours per day to 12 hours per day.

The story of Imran – Bangladesh

Imran is a 40-year-old tannery worker. Originally from Rangpur division, some 300 km from Dhaka, he now lives and works in the Bangladesh capital city. He is the breadwinner for a family of five. As a shaving helper, he used to work six days a week, eight hours per day, for a meagre wage. He works at a machine that shapes the leather to the appropriate thickness for further processing. His life was never easy, but now, with the Corona pandemic, things have become even worse. Imran saw his wage decimated, and was forced to incur substantial debts. Imran and his family suffered from lack of food, and they nearly lost their house.

Imran’s factory

In the tannery where Imran works, various types and qualities of leather are produced. Most of the tannery’s output is exported to countries such as China, Japan or Italy, where it is used for all kinds of products. With 750 male and female workers, this tannery is among the bigger workplaces in the area. On this mixed work floor, the female workers sometimes face prejudices from their male colleagues. They are accused of working less hard and being lazier than the men.

The tannery is unionised. This is quite rare; most tanneries in Dhaka do not have a union on the factory level. The smaller tanneries in particular rarely have organised workforces. Generally speaking, owners are not keen on workers organising themselves.

Factory lockdown and wage loss

At the end of March 2020, the factory closed down for six weeks, due to the Corona pandemic. Workers were allowed to take paid leave for the duration of this closure, but initially no wages were paid at all. This brought Imran and his fellow workers into a situation of acute financial hardship. The Bangladesh government had decreed that employers should pay workers at least 65% of the normal wages during lockdown. Later, Imran did receive his wages for the month of April, but it was only 60% of his normal salary. For a long time, Imran remained optimistic that he would still get the remaining 5% of his April wage. This, however, never happened.

Economic hardship and struggles to survive

During the lockdown, Imran and his family got some emergency relief from the Bangladesh Labour Foundation, a national NGO. This was very welcome, but not enough to cover the family’s basic needs, and Imran had to take out a loan to survive. Even with this, they still suffered from hunger. At the end of the lockdown, the family was two months short on rent. Their landlord showed no mercy and continued to treat the family badly.

A reopened factory, but an insecure job

In early May 2020, the tannery reopened. Imran and all his fellow workers were called back to work. Luckily, no workers had been laid off when the machines started running again. But, as dismissals were constantly happening in the Dhaka leather sector, Imran felt highly insecure, every day expecting to be sacked too. When he got his next payslip in May, it turned out to be only 65% of the pre-lockdown wage. Before the Corona crisis, Imran always had the possibility to work overtime, as a way to earn more. Since May 2020, this was no longer an option due to a drawback of orders.

Unsafe working conditions

At the reopening of the factory, management set up a number of health and safety measures to prevent workers from being infected with Corona. Workers are ordered to wash their hands and do a temperature check before entering the factory. Machines in the factory are disinfected five to six times a day. Knowing how contagious the Corona virus is, Imran doesn’t feel that these measures are sufficient to keep workers safe and healthy. He is critical of his employer for not providing the necessary protective equipment, such as gloves and face masks. Also, social distancing is not implemented in the factory. Facilities to wash hands are lacking. Imran is very unhappy with the situation. He feels nervous and insecure. The union asked management to improve the Corona precautions on the floor, but to no avail. Management simply refused to answer the request.

Worries about the future

The acute hunger of the lockdown period is now over, but Imran and his family still feel the backlash of the lockdown. Imran has not yet been able to repay his debts to the landlord, a fact which continues to weigh on the family’s budget. The education of the family’s children is also at risk. One child, who was progressing well may not be able to pursue their studies because the family cannot afford it anymore. Imran knows his job is not safe, and is still very fearful of losing his job.

All in all, he remains terrified of what the future will bring for him and his family.

Corona in Bangladesh

The Corona pandemic is having a big impact on the leather sector in Bangladesh. In 2020, the major issue was the cancellation of orders by both domestic and international buyers. According to the Leather goods and Footwear Manufacturers & Exporters Association of Bangladesh (LFMEAB), as of April 2020, orders amounting to USD 316 million were cancelled. Traders were unable to get adequate prices for raw hides, resulting in a massive dumping of these materials. Highly problematic also was the interrupted supply of materials, including processed hides and chemicals. Many tanneries and factories closed. When, in March 2020, the Bangladesh authorities called for a nation-wide lockdown, more businesses had to shut their doors. In April 2021, a new lockdown was proclaimed, covering public transport and government offices, but, for the time being, excluding garment factories. Still, it is no exaggeration to say that the entire leather and leather products value chain of Bangladesh is severely disrupted.

The story of Amrita – India

Amrita is a 50-year-old widow who works in a shoe factory in Ambur, a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Corona pandemic has had a dramatic impact on Amrita’s life. When her workplace closed, Amrita lost out on her wages. She and her family suffered from hunger and she got herself into debt. Since the factory reopened, Amrita has had to work longer hours for less wages.

Single earner

As a single earner, Amrita takes care of a son and a daughter. Amrita lives with her son; her daughter is studying to become a nurse. When the Indian government proclaimed the lockdown in March 2020, Amrita’s daughter was doing an internship away from home. With the sudden lockdown, her internship was abruptly called off, and with the transport system not operating, she could not come back home. Amrita had to pay for her daughter’s accommodation in a hostel, expenses that were way above her budget.

Amrita lives in a modest rental house in Ambur. When Amrita’s wages were cut, she still had to pay full rent. The family received a one-time payment of 1,000 rupees as emergency relief from the state government, which was welcome but far from enough to make up for the financial hardship they faced.

The lockdown and the financial stress were also felt in other ways. The marriage of Amrita’s son had to be postponed. Big gatherings were not allowed during the lockdown and the marriage was not financially feasible either. In the same period, the family could not attend the funeral of a relative, as there was no way to reach the ceremony location.

Amrita’s factory

The factory where Amrita is working produces uppers for women shoes. Amrita’s job is fusing, putting together the leather parts. This factory is part of a big privately-owned group, which owns several companies. The group produces shoes for men and women as well as finished leather, both for the domestic market and for export destinations.

Massive lay-offs

When Amrita’s factory reopened in late May 2020, Amrita could resume her job. Many co-workers, however, were not called back. Of the 1,500 people working in her factory almost half of the workers were laid off after the lockdown was lifted. Before the Corona crisis the factory had 15 production lines; now only six or seven lines were kept running. Temporary workers and helpers were most affected; they were dismissed first. The factory management told the workers that the dismissals were the result of a reduced number of orders and that the factory would make losses if the entire workforce was kept on. Dismissed workers did get a sum of money as compensation, the amount depending on the time they had worked for the factory, but definitely not enough to make up for the loss of employment.

Health and safety measures

One point that Amrita was positive about were the health and safety measures that were introduced by management in the factory. She mentioned the screening of workers’ temperatures and the provision of sanitizer at the compound’s entrance. Workers are instructed to wear masks, and keep a safe distance from each other. Inside the factory, however, no additional facilities for washing hands have been installed.

More work, less pay

During lockdown, as well as since Amrita started working again, she has not received even a third of her normal salary and no festival bonuses. She said that she had no hopes to ever receive her back wages. After the factory reopened, management introduced a new workplan: Amrita now has to work nine hours every day, instead of the eight hours she used to work. This is six hours of extra work per week. The pay, however, is significantly less than before the lockdown. Instead of 7,000 INR (a mere 79 EUR) per month, Amrita now only gets 6,500 INR (73.4 EUR). Overtime hours are not paid at the proper rate. Amrita does not have an employment contract, so she cannot take formal legal action to address this.

Corona in India

The India garment and footwear sector has been badly affected by the Corona pandemic. Early 2020, the import of key inputs like chemicals, adhesives, dyes and footwear components such as soles, buttons and zippers was severely interrupted, which badly impacted production capacity in the various leather hubs in India. The lockdowns in the US and the EU in the first quarter of 2020, including closure of retail shops, further disturbed production the sector, as it brought the demand for leather products to an immediate halt. As a result, many factories and workplaces in India closed. Late March 2020, the Government of Indian called for the first domestic lockdown, causing further havoc to India economy. In April 2021, a new wave of the Covid pandemic hit the country, forcing the country again into regional lockdown. Only since early June 2021, with case numbers declining, Indian states started easing lockdowns.

Trends in production and trade: Leather products from India

The leather sector in India takes up a prominent place in the country’s economy. It is known for its high consistency in export earnings and is placed in the top 10 of foreign exchange earners for India. This overview of trends in the production of leather and leather goods in India bundles together information on key products produced in India, as well as key export markets for its leather and leather goods. The report maps key leather manufacturers and buying companies.

> Download now:

Trends in production and trade: Leather products from Pakistan

The leather and leather goods industry is of considerable importance to the Pakistan economy. It is one of the five key export-oriented sectors for the country. This overview of trends in the production of leather and leather goods in Pakistan bundles together information on key products produced in Pakistan, as well as key export markets for its leather and leather goods. The report maps key leather manufacturers and buying companies.

> Download now:


A global call for full supply chain transparency in the clothing sector

This week, the world remembers the Rana Plaza tragedy. On 24 April 2013 more than a thousand workers lost their life in what was, in essence, a preventable accident. The accident shook the world and put a spotlight on the unsafe conditions faced by workers in global garment supply chains.

Companies have a clear responsibility to look at their supply chain, identify human rights risks and impacts and address them. A lack of visibility of supply chains can allow exploitative, unsafe working conditions and environmental damage to thrive while obscuring who has the responsibility and power to redress these issues.

As a first step, brands and retailers need to understand and disclose their own supply chain. Therefor, the consortium Together for Decent Leather joined the plea for increased supply chain transparancy. Together with a broad coalition, we call upon all clothing brands and retailers to disclose all the facilities in their supply chain.  We also ask regulators to provide for a level playing field, by setting harmonised legislation for such public disclosure and to ensure every clothing brand commits to the same level of transparency.

Download the global call

Session on vulnerable workers at the OECD forum on due diligence in the garment and footwear sector

On the occasion of the 2021 OECD Forum on due diligence in the garment and footwear sector, Together for Decent Leather is hosting the side session  ‘Together for Decent Leather – From precarious jobs to decent work’. The session will take place on Tuesday, 2 February, from 9:30 to 11:00 am. During the session, the consortium will discuss the most vulnerable worker groups in the leather garment and footwear sector, the key risks of labour rights violations they face, who is responsible for solving the problems and what should be done.

Vulnerable workers

The Corona pandemic has dramatically laid bare the vulnerable position of workers in global supply chains, including workers in the leather goods supply chain. Particular groups of workers (informal homeworkers, contract workers and daily labourers) in Asian production countries, such as Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, have been hit disproportionally.

The Session

The multi-stakeholder side session that is hosted by Together for Decent Leather will look into the causes and consequences of precarious and insecure work, and the challenges that vulnerable groups of workers face in this sub-sector of the garment industry.  The ways forward will also be addressed.

In the first panel, Pradeepan Ravi (Cividep India), Farhat Parveen (NOW Communities Pakistan) and Ashraf Uddin (Bangladesh Labour Foundation) will speak about vulnerable leather workers in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. What are the obstacles homeworkers and tannery workers face? How to improve their living and working conditions?

In the second panel, Jürgen Janssen, head of the German Partnership for Sustainable Textiles (PST) will share how the PST addresses labour issues in garment supply chain and make parallels to the leather sector. Sara Brennan, head of Corporate Responsibility at Pentland will elaborate on the actions the fashion company takes to improve the working conditions for the homeworkers within its footwear supply chain. Gertrude Klaffenboeck (Suedwind Austria) will outline how today’s national governments, international policies and guidelines, as well as corporate policies largely fail to protect the rights and livelihoods of vulnerable leather workers and explain how mandatory human rights due diligence can make a difference.

> Go to the webpage where the session will be hosted

Together for Decent Leather is a three-year programme, carried out by an Asian-European consortium of seven civil society organisations. Their goal is to improve working conditions and to reduce labour rights abuses, focusing on leather garment and footwear production hubs in South Asia.